Anatomy of the female reproductive system, Details..
Anatomy of the reproductive system of females … the reproductive system of the female has two functions to produce egg cells and to protect and nourish the fetus until birth. Following parts constitute the reproductive system, a pair of ovaries, fallopian tube, uterus, cervix, vagina, and accessory genital glands and a pair of mammary glands.
reproductive system of females:-
a. Pair of Ovaries:
Each ovary is of the shape of unshelled almond and the size is 3.5 cm long, 2 cm wide and 1 cm thick. It is placed in the abdominal cavity. The ovary is attached to the uterus by an ovarian ligament. The ovary is suspended from the abdominal wall by a mesentery called mesovarium.
Each ovary is lined by cuboidal germinal epithelium and is solid. Underneath the germinal epithelium lies a layer of connective tissue called tunica albuginea. Underlying this layer is the stroma. Stroma is further divided into a dense outer cortex and less dense inner medulla.
b. Fallopian Tube or Oviduct:
the Fallopian tubes. in reproductive system of females is about 10 cm long, muscular, tubular and ciliated structure. It lies in pelvic region, just above the urinary bladder. It is composed of outer serosa, middle muscularis, and inner mucosa. The mucosa is made of simple ciliated columnar cells and secretory cells. A viscous liquid is secreted by secretory cells, which provide protection and nourishment to the ovum. Ciliated cells help in the movement of the ovum. Each fallopian tube is divided into infundibulum, ampulla, isthmus and uterine part.
This is a broad, funnel-shaped proximal part. Finger-like projections arise from this proximal part and are called fimbriae. Infundibulum opens into the body cavity by an aperture called ostium. Ostium lies near the ovary and receives egg from the ovary with the help of fimbriae.
It comprises the major portion of the fallopian tube. It is long, thin-walled and wide.
It is a short, thick-walled, ciliated and narrow straight path.
iv. Uterine Part:
It is the narrow and inner part which opens in the upper part of the uterus.
It is hollow, muscular, vascular and large (8 cm x 5 cm x 2 cm) pear shaped Structure which is present in the pelvic region above the bladder. It can be divided into three parts – fundus, body and cervix.
Fundus is upper, dome shaped part above the opening of fallopian tube. The middle and major part of uterus is the body. It has three layers – outer peritoneal perimetrium, middle muscular myometrium and highly vascular endometrium. The lower narrow part which opens in the body of the uterus by internal os and in vagina by external os is called cervix.
Uterus is the site of foetal placentation, its growth and parturition.
This is a tubular structure, 10-12 cm long and extends from cervix to the outside of body. It receives the sperms during copulation, is passage for menstrual flow and forms the birth canal during labour. Hymen is the membranous structure which covers the opening of vagina – the vaginal orifice. Vagina is lined by non-keratinised stratified squamous epithelium. Glands are absent in vaginal wall.
This is the external genitalia of females. Valva consists of the vestibule or urino-genital sinus which is in the form of depression and is in the front of anus. Valva consists of two apertures, upper external urethral orifice and lower vaginal orifice.
The anterior part of valva is fatty and covered with pubic hair. This portion is called as Mons pubis. Corresponding to the male penis, the clitoris is present in the females which are made of erectile tissue. Two large, thick-walled fold of skin forms the boundary of vulva. These are labia major and contain sebaceous glands. Between labia major two small folds are present and these are called as labia minora. Labia minora fuse posteriorly to form fourchette. On either side of vaginal orifice, there is a pair of Bartholin’s gland. This gland secretes a clear, viscous fluid that works as a lubricating agent during copulation. The area below fourchette and anus is perineum.
f. Mammary Gland or Breast:
In reproductive system of females, mammary glands are one pair and present on the ventral thoracic wall. They are modified sweat glands. In males, it is rudimentary whereas in females it is well developed. Hormone estrogen and progesterone are responsible for their development. After childbirth, anterior lobe of pituitary secretes oxytocin. The former is responsible for the production of milk and later stimulates its release.
The breast is externally covered with skin and in the center, there is nipple made of erectile tissue. The nipple is surrounded by a pigmented area called the areola. Areola has numerous sebaceous glands called the areolar glands.
Human milk is made of organic, inorganic compounds and water. Milk is poor in iron. It mainly consists of fat droplets, lactase, casein, vitamins, and minerals like sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate, etc. Glandular, fibrous and adipose tissues constitute the mammary glands.
i. Glandular Tissue:
This tissue consists of around 20 lobes and each lobe has 15-20 lobules. Each lobule is made of up glandular alveoli and unit to form a lactiferous duct. These ducts extend to form lactiferous sinuses which store milk during lactation. Each sinus opens to the outside by narrow ducts which are 0.5 mm in diameter.
ii. Adipose Tissue:
The surface of the gland is covered by adipose tissue. It is also found between the lobes. The size of the breast is determined by adipose tissue.
iii. Fibrous Tissue:
Glandular tissues and ducts get support from this tissue.
Follicular Stimulating Hormone (FSH) controls the transformation of the young primary oocyte into the Graafian follicle. It also controls the maturation of ovum and secretion of estrogen the follicular cells. Luteinizing hormone controls the ovulation process, the formation of corpus luteum from Graafian follicle and secretion of progesterone from corpus luteum.
Puberty in Females:
Puberty age in females is between 10 and 14 years and is characterized by menstrual cycle and ovulation. Estrogen secretion controls the growth and maturation of the reproductive tract and development of accessory sexual characters.
There are physical and psychological changes because that take place in females during this phase.This process plays an important role in the reproductive system of females
a. Enlargement of breasts.
b. Growth of pubic and axillary hair.
c. Increase in subcutaneous fat in buttocks, thighs, and face.
d. Beginning of menstrual cycle and ovulation.
e. Broadening of the hip region due to the widening of the pelvis.
f. Stoppage of growth of long bones.